When I don’t have a choice or if conditions are too harsh, I transplant seedlings; otherwise, I think direct seeding is the way to go.
When you plant a seed directly in the ground and let it establish in place, you gain some serious advantages over plants started in flats or pots. This particularly true when you’re talking about trees.
As Allen’s dad’s experiment proved, seeding in place doesn’t have to be tough. You just pick a good spot, plant, water if you remember… and mow around it.
Check out this carob tree seedling I pulled out of a container on my windowsill: