TJ asks about composting storm debris:
“I’ve got a lot of debris from the storm still, plus I’ll be cutting down some trees soon. What do you think is the best way to avoid exporting those nutrients and to reincorporate them into the soil? I was thinking on doing some hugelkultur beds, but I’ve never done one and might have too much material. Any recommendations on the hugel beds and other ways to make use of these material?”
Yes – I certainly have some suggestions.
Method #1 for Composting Storm Debris: Throw it on the Ground
In Chapter 11 of Compost Everything: The Good Guide to Extreme Composting I wrote:
“My dad and I started a food forest in his shady and infertile south Florida backyard. One weekend we piled up palm tree trunks, branches, logs, hedge trimmings, leaves, grass clippings and whatever else the neighbors were throwing out. The resulting stack of biomass was probably two feet tall and covered over a hundred square feet. In the middle and around the edges we planted fruit trees and edible perennials. Within a couple of months you could dig into the pile and find rich black soil, worms, and a wide variety of insects working together to rapidly convert that pile of “waste” into soil.”
This was what that mass of plant debris did:
Just piling up all the trunks and leaves and debris will eventually give you rich results.
Stack them someplace out of the way or put them in rough piles right around trees or anywhere.
This pile broke down wonderfully in a little more than a year.
When the sticks got brittle, I stomped on them. Just don’t do that if you’re in poisonous snake country.
Method #2 for Composting Storm Debris: Use Logs for Boundaries
I’ve also taken felled trees and chunks of trunk and used them to delineate paths in food forests.
It’s not always the prettiest method, but those hunks of logs keep the ground moist beneath them, harbor a variety of useful species, plus host fungi, which are an integral part of forest life.
A year after throwing down piles of tree trunks and shredded tree company mulch, I was so amazed to see the many varieties of mushrooms which appeared that I did a post with 39 pictures documenting them.
Method #3 for Composting Storm Debris: Hugelkultur
TJ also asked about hugelkultur as a method for composting storm debris.
I must confess, I have never built a proper hugelkultur bed. I know it’s one of those super-popular things that permaculture gardeners do but I haven’t done one.
I did bury tree chunks and plant a jaboticaba on top:
That led to sinking soil and the need to replant the tree within a year.
I honestly don’t know how hugelkultur beds will work in Florida overall. Organic material deteriorates at a frightening rate and sandy soil is likely to wash away from the top of the mounds. It’s probably worth building one as an experiment but I wouldn’t bet heavily on a method which comes from a cold climate with clay soils.
And hugelkultur may not even be what many think it is.
As Jack Spirko writes in a very interesting article for Permaculture News:
“The purpose of this mound is twofold.
1. Break down organic matter and build soil
2. Grow annual production while number one happens and/or growing short term perennials and nurse trees for later planting in other locations.
How do I know this? When I met Sepp in Montana in 2012 and watched him build about 4 linear kilometers of hugels, he told me so and I believed him.
I hear cries of heresy and blasphemy, but I am just telling you the way this system is actually used successfully. So strap in if you are upset now, indeed it gets worse from here. The big shocker is what happens next. One of them you may have a hard time believing…
1. The mounds over time sort of flatten and are left. At this point, the succession proceeds into long term perennial production. The key though is that a few seasons of annual cropping and short term perennials are used first. Generally in this case they remain bush, shrub, small tree, herbaceous and annual crop producers.
2. More often than above, gasp! The mound is at some point spread out and full on perennial systems are established or even grazing systems are boosted. This can produce astounding amounts of soil, the value of which if trucked in would be measured in 10’s of thousands of dollars per acre.
The primary purpose of hugels is building soil, production is of secondary concern. Getting production out of hugels makes the method practical but none the less, still secondary to the original intent. Very few edicts to the concept are even aware of why Sepp Holzer did hugels in the first place. Quite simply it was done because he had a ton of low value trees around and removing them was more costly than their value.”
If the primary purpose is building soil, the same can be done with much less labor than digging mounds requires. Throw the material in big piles and let it rot, then later spread it around. Florida’s hot and humid climate chews through most fallen trees in a couple of years, turning them into crumbly humus. If you build mounds, they are going to sink. Fast.
Method #4 for Composting Storm Debris: Biochar
Biochar is just charcoal making.
Charcoal has the capacity to hold onto nutrition and potentially act like humus in the ground. In sandy soils with high leaching, this is powerful. Humus disappears very quickly in Florida, and less quickly in colder climates, but charcoal is practically immortal.
I now add it to many of my compost piles for that very reason:
It will sit in the pile and soak up the good stuff, then later be spread around my gardens and trees.
If you have a lot of storm debris, just do something like this:
Then use that charcoal everywhere. Just don’t burn the trees into nothing – be sure you quench the fire and get the charcoal, as most of the good material will leave your property for the atmosphere if you let the fire go too long.
So – to answer the question “what’s the best method for composting storm debris?”
Any way that keeps the material on your land. Don’t give in to the convenience of letting the county take it or just burning it to ashes.
Trees are rich in carbon and other minerals that they’ve produced and mined from the soil, sometimes for generations. Don’t waste them. Even making islands of trunk chunks, leaves and branches around your fruit trees will greatly benefit the trees.
As has been said before “forests grow on the remains of forests.”
Use fallen trees to feed living ones and you’ll be surprised how they respond.
Excellent article Sir David, nothing but good info and practices. It’s nice to be able to read an article and actually feel like you learned something. Far and above most magazine or internet articles that are more word count than substance.
Our family is praying for Rachel and your new family member. Everything is going to be good so don’t worry brother.
Thank you for your efforts during these busy times.
Thank you – I appreciate it.
I am in Naples Florida and after Irma went over (and things settled down and the water receded) I collected two large trash bags of Mahogany tree leaves from my neighbors trees. A number of branches broke and many fell behind my work van (none on it). My son and I had to cut the large branches down just to get in our driveway!
Anyway I will be using these to make leaf mold and also to feed (and increase) my millicompost bins!
Your tips are well appreciated and great ideas!
I agree with Kodiakpurdis. Your articles are always simple and concise, yet full of valuable information that is useful to both novice and experienced gardeners. Thank you so much for sharing your knowledge and experience with us, David!